GLOSSARIES

 

Braided Sleeving Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Abrasion Resistance:
Resistance to surface wear.

 

Accelerated Aging:
A test that attempts to duplicate long-term environmental aging in comparatively short time spans.

 

Accelerator:
A chemical additive, which hastens a chemical reaction under specific conditions.

 

Aging:
The changes in a material’s properties that occur with time, under specific conditions.

 

Alloy:
A compound formed when two or more different metals are combined to create a new metal with desirable properties.

 

Aluminum Conductor:
An aluminum wire, or group of wires, which is not suitably insulated to carry an electrical current.

 

Aluminum-Steel Conductor:
A composite conductor made up of aluminum and steel wires.

 

Ambient Temperature:
The temperature of a medium (gas or liquid) surrounding an object.

 

Braid:
A fibrous or metallic group of filaments, interwoven in cylindrical form to create a covering over one or more wires.

 

Braid Angle:
The smaller of the two angles formed by a shielding strand and the axis of the cable being shielded.

 

Braid Carrier:
A spool or bobbin on a braid, which holds one group of strands or filaments and revolves during braiding operations.

 

Braid Ends:
The number of strands used to make up one carrier. Strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin, and lie parallel in the finished braid.

 

Braiding Machine:
A machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and produce braided sleeving, as well as braids for tying or lacing purposes. A braiding machine is identified by the number of carriers it has.

 

Bushing:
A device used to line an opening, which prevents abrasion to any wires and cables that are being passed through that opening.

 

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Cable Sheath:
The overall protective covering applied to cables.

 

Corrosion:
The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction.

 

Coverage:
A calculated percentage that defines the level of completeness with which a metal braid covers an underlying surface. The higher the percentage of coverage is, the greater the protection against external interference.

 

Covering:
Textile braid, rubber jacket, plastic or any other material applied over wire and cables to provide mechanical protection and identification.

 

Creep:
The dimensional change that occurs with time to a material under load.

 

Cure:
To change the physical properties of a material by chemical reaction.

 

Curing Cycle:
The time, temperature and pressure required for curing.

 

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI):
The interference in signal transmission or reception resulting from the radiation of electrical and magnetic fields. Synonym: Radio Frequency Interference.

 

Electromotive Force (EMF):
Pressure or voltage, the forces that cause current to flow in a circuit.

 

Elongation:
The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension.

 

Ends:
In braiding, the number of parallel wires or threads on a carrier.

 

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Fiber:
A thread or threadlike structure. Also, a single discrete element used to transmit optical (light wave) information.

 

Filament:
Fiber characterized by extreme length.

 

Flame Resistance:
The ability of a material to not propagate flame once a heat source is removed.

 

Flammability:
The measure of the material's ability to support combustion.

 

Flat Braid:
A woven braid of tinned copper strands, rolled flat to a specified width at the time of manufacture.

 

Flexibility:
The ease with which a cable may be bent.

 

Flexible:
The characteristic of a cable or cable component, which allows it to be bent under the influence of an outside force.

 

Ground Plane:
Expanded copper mesh, which can be laminated – as a shield – into various flat cable constructions.

 

Heat Distortion:
Distortion to a material’s flow or configuration, as a result of exposure to heat.

 

High-Temperature Wire and Cable:
Electrical wire and cables having operating temperatures of 150°C and higher.

 

Hygroscopic:
Capable of absorbing moisture from the air.

 

Hypalon:
DuPont's trade name for their chlorosulfonated polyethylene, an ozone-resistant synthetic rubber.

 

Index of Refraction:
The ratio of light’s velocity in a vacuum to its velocity in a given transmitting medium.

 

Insulating Joint:
A device, which mechanically couples and electrically insulates the sheath and armor of contiguous lengths of cable.

 

Jacket:
An outer protective sheath over primary insulation, braids, shields, cable components, or the cable itself. In fiber optics, a jacket is a covering that protects a fiber, fiber bundle or cable against the environment.

 

JAN Specification:
Joint Army-Navy specification (replaced by current Military Specifications).

 

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Kynar:
Pennwalt trade name for polyvinylidene fluoride, a material typically used as insulation for wire wrap wire.

 

Kevlar:
Is the registered trademark for a light, strong para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora

 

Lacquer:
A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying, moisture absorption, etc.

 

Longitudinal Shield:
A flat or corrugated tape shield that is applied longitudinally, with the axis of the core being shielded.

 

Longitudinal Wrap:
See Longitudinal Shield .

 

m:
Meter.

 

Modulus of Elasticity:
The ratio of stress to strain in an elastic material.

 

Moisture Absorption:
The amount (in percentage) of moisture that a material will absorb under specified conditions.

 

Moisture Resistance:
A material’s ability to resist the absorption of moisture from both air and water.

 

Mylar® :
DuPont trademark for polyester film.

 

Nomex® :
DuPont trademark for a temperature- resistant, flame-retardant nylon.

 

Nylon:
A thermoplastic with good chemical and abrasion resistance.

 

Oil Aging:
The accelerated aging of cabling, achieved by placing the cable in an oil bath and heating it to a pre­set temperature for a stated amount of time.

 

Outgassing:
The dissipation of gas from a dielectric, evidencing decomposition.

 

Oxygen Index:
The percentage of oxygen necessary to support combustion in a gas mixture.

 

Ozone:
A reactive form of oxygen, typically found around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small quantities.

 

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Pick:
The distance between two adjacent braid-filament crossover points. A measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage provided by a braided sleeve or shield.

 

Plastic Deformation:
A change in dimension that occurs under load, which is not recovered when the load is removed.

 

Plasticizer:
A chemical agent added to plastics to make them softer and more pliable.

 

Polyester:
Polyethylene terephthalate, a material used extensively as a moisture-resistant cable core wrap.

 

Polyethylene:
A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties.

 

Polyhalocarbon:
A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

 

Polymer: A material of high molecular weight, formed by the chemical union of monomers.

 

Polyolefin: Any of the polymers and copolymers of the ethylene family of hydrocarbons.

 

Polypropylene:
A thermoplastic that is similar to polyethylene, with the exception of being stiffer and having a higher softening point (temperature); also possesses excellent electrical properties.

 

Porosity:
Multiple voids in an insulation cross- section.

 

Pull Strength:
See Pull Tension.

 

Pull Tension:
The maximum pulling force that can be safely applied to a cable without damage.

 

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC):
A general-purpose thermoplastic, widely used for wire and cable insulations and jackets.

 

Reinforced Sheath:
A type of layered cable sheath, constructed with an additional reinforcing material, usually a braided fiber, molded in place between layers.

 

Ribbon Cable:
A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or woven textile yarn.

 

Rubber (Wire Insulation):
Term used to describe wire insulations made of thermosetting elastomers; occurs naturally or may be made synthetically.

 

Rulan® :
DuPont's trade name for their flame- retardant polyethylene insulating material.

 

Secondary Insulation:
A nonconductive material that protects a cable’s conductor against abrasion and provides a second electrical barrier.

 

Self-Extinguishing:
Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed.

 

Semi-Conducting Jacket:
A cable jacket that has a resistance level sufficiently low enough to give its outer surface a substantial degree of grounding potential.

 

Semi-Rigid:
A cable containing a flexible inner core and relatively inflexible sheathing.

 

Semi-Solid:
An insulation cross-section having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter.

 

Serve:
A filament or group of filaments, such as fibers or wires, which are wound around a central core.

 

Serving:
A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire.

 

Sheath:
See Cable Sheath.

 

Shield:
A metallic layer placed around a cable’s conductor to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wires and external fields.

 

Shield Coverage:
The degree to which a cable’s surface is covered by shielding material.

 

Shield Effectiveness:
A shield’s ability to screen out undesirable signals.

 

Silicone:
A material made from silicon and oxygen, which can be found either in thermosetting elastomer form, which is noted for its high heat resistance, or as a liquid.

 

Silicone Treatment:
A silicone liquid treatment applied to insulated conductors to allow for easy jacket stripping.

 

Skeleton Braid:
Widely separated braid of copper or steel fibers, used to hold cable cores together, reinforce cable jackets, and provide shielding against electromagnetic interference.

 

Sleeve:
A braided, knitted or woven tube used as insulation over wires or components . Also called Sleeving.

 

Specific Gravity:
The ratio comparing a material’s density (mass per unit volume) to that of water.

 

Spiral Shield:
A metallic shield of fine-stranded wires, applied in a spiral rather than in braid form.

 

Splice:
A joining of conductors, generally from separate sheaths.

 

Splice Closure:
A device used to protect a cable or wire splice.

 

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Tear Strength:
The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions.

 

Teflon® :
DuPont company trade name for fluorocarbon resins. FEP, PFA and TFE are typical materials.

 

Tefzel® :
DuPont trade name for a fluorocarbon material typically used as wire wrap insulation.

 

Tensile Strength:
The pull stress required to break a given specimen.

 

Textile Braid:
Any braid made from threads of cotton silk, or synthetic fibers.

 

Thermal Aging:
Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for preset periods of time.

 

Thermoplastic: A material, which softens when heated and becomes firm upon cooling.

 

Thermoset: A material that hardens or sets when heat is applied, and which, once set, cannot be re-softened by heating. The application of heat is called "curing."

 

Tin Overcoat (TOC):
Tinned copper wire, stranded, then coated with pure tin.

 

Vulcanization:
A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of an elastomer are changed by reacting it with sulfur or other cross-linking agents.

 

Wall Thickness:
The thickness of the applied insulation or jacket.

 

Water Absorption:
A test to determine the amount of water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period.

 

Wire and Cable Tying, Clamping, and Harnessing Devices:
Tying tapes, lacing cords and flexible sleevings, which are used to bundle, harness and confine wire and cable . Other devices include plastic ties or clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.

 

Zytel® :
DuPont's trade name for nylon resins.

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