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Acronym for First In, First Out, an abstraction in ways of organizing and manipulation of data relative to time and prioritization. This expression describes the principle of a queue processing technique or servicing conflicting demands by ordering process by first-come, first-served (FCFS) behaviour: what comes in first is handled first, what comes in next waits until the first is finished, etc.
Thus it is analogous to the behaviour of persons queueing (or "standing in line", in common American parlance), where the persons leave the queue in the order they arrive, or drearily waiting one's turn at a traffic control signal. FCFS is also the shorthand name for the FIFO operating system scheduling algorithm, which gives every process CPU time in the order they come. In the broader sense, the abstraction LIFO, or Last-In-First-Out is the opposite of the abstraction FIFO organization, the difference perhaps is clearest with considering the less commonly used synonym of LIFO, FILO - meaning First-In-Last-Out. In essence, both are specific cases of a more generalized list (which could be accessed anywhere). The difference is not in the list (data), but in the rules for accessing the content. One sub-type adds to one end, and takes off from the other, it's opposite takes and puts things only on one end.
A priority queue is a variation on the queue which does not qualify for the name FIFO, because it is not accurately descriptive of that data structure's behavior. Queueing theory encompasses the more general concept of queue, as well as interactions between strict-FIFO queues.