Cable Glossary

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

10BaseT (also 10Base-T):
10 Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using two pairs of twisted-pair cabling (Category 3, 4, or 5): one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. 10BaseT, which is part of the IEEE 802.3 specification, has a distance limit of approximately 328 feet (100 meters) per segment. The 10BaseT runs at 10 Megabits per second.


10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet, thin ethernet, thinnet or thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable (RG-58 or similar, as opposed to the thicker RG-8 cable used in 10BASE5 networks), terminated with BNC connectors. For many years this was the dominant 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standard, but due to the immense demand for high speed networking, the low cost of Category 5 Ethernet cable, and the popularity of 802.11 wireless networks, both 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 have become almost obsolete.


The original variant of Ethernet cable, using special cable similar to RG-8/U coaxial cable. Also referred to as thicknet.


10 Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using two strands of multimode or singlemode fiber optic cabling: one strand for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. 10BaseFL, which is part of the IEEE 802.3 specification, has a distance limit of approximately 2,000 meters on multimode fiber using a transceiver operating in the 850 nm spectrum, and approximately 20 km on singlemode fiber using a transceiver operating in the 850 nm spectrum.


100 Mbps baseband Fast Ethernet specification using UTP wiring (Category 5 or better). Like the 10BaseT technology on which it is based, 100BaseTX sends link pulses over the network segment when no traffic is present. However, these link pulses contain more information than those used in 10BaseT. The 100BaseTX specification is based on the IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet standard.


100 Mbps baseband Ethernet specification using two strands of multimode or singlemode fiber optic cabling: one strand for transmitting data and the other for receiving data, OR a single strand of singlemode optical fiber with two frequencies transmitted, at 1310 nm and 1550 nm spectra, using Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology with one spectrum carrying data in one direction while the other spectrum carries data in the opposite direction. 100BaseFX, which is part of the IEEE 802.3 specification, has a distance limit of approximately 2,000 meters on multimode fiber using a transceiver operating in the 1310 nm spectrum, and approximately 75 km or more on singlemode fiber using a transceiver operating in the 1310 or 1550 nm spectra. Distances on singlemode fiber are primarily limited by the Link Power Budget of the fiber optic strands constituting the circuit.  The 100BaseFX specification is based on the IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet standard.


A nomenclature applied to a port on an Ethernet device that supports both the 10BaseT and 100BaseTX standards.  Normally, such a port negotiates speed and half/full duplex modes automatically using the NWay auto-negotiation protocol.  Some Signamax devices can disable NWay and force a port to a particular speed and/or duplex mode, either programmatically via a management or administrative terminal function, or via DIP switch settings found on the device.


1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet specification using UTP wiring (Category 5e or better, with all four pairs in the cable carrying information bi-directionally). Like the 10BaseT and 100BaseTX technologies on which it is based, 1000BaseT sends link pulses over the network segment when no traffic is present. However, these link pulses contain more information than those used in 10BaseT and 100BaseTX. The 100BaseTX specification is based on the IEEE 802.3ab Gigabit Ethernet standard.


A nomenclature applied to a port on an Ethernet device that supports all of the 10BaseT, 100BaseTX, and 1000BaseT standards. Normally, such a port negotiates speed and half/full duplex modes automatically using the NWay auto-negotiation protocol. Some Signamax devices can disable NWay and force a port to a particular speed and/or duplex mode, either programmatically via a management or administrative terminal function, or via DIP switch settings found on the device.


1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet specification using two strands of multimode or single mode fiber-optic cable per link, at either 1310 nm (typical) or 1550 nm (long-haul) spectra, OR a single strand of singlemode optical fiber with two frequencies transmitted, at 1310 nm and 1550 nm spectra, using Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology with one spectrum carrying data in one direction while the other spectrum carries data in the opposite direction. To guarantee proper signal recovery, a 1000BaseLX link cannot exceed 1804 feet (550 meters) in length over multimode fiber or 65,620 feet (20 km) in length over single mode fiber. Based on the IEEE 802.3z standard, with reach over single mode fiber extended from 5 km to 20 km.


1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet specification using two strands of multimode fiber-optic cable per link. Normal optical frequency spectrum of this interface is 850 nm. To guarantee proper signal recovery, a 1000BaseSX link cannot exceed 721.78 feet (220 meters) in length when 62.5μ core diameter fiber is used; nor can it exceed 1,804.46 feet (550 meters) in length when 50μ core diameter fiber is used. The 1000BaseSX specification is based on the IEEE 802.3z standard.


1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet specification that refers to the 1000BaseCX, 1000BaseSX, and 1000BaseLX standards for Gigabit Ethernet over fiber-optic cabling. The 1000BaseX specification is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard.



Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (or ACSR) cable is a specific type of high-capacity, high-strength stranded cable used in overhead power lines. The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its excellent conductivity and low weight. The center strand is of steel. providing extra strength. The lower electrical conductivity of the steel core has a minimal effect on the overall current-carrying capacity of the cable. Due to a skin effect, most of the current is carried by the outer, aluminum portion of the cable, therefore, the higher resistance of the inner steel strand is largely immaterial.


An American Society for Testing and Material standard for both soft and annealed copper wire.


The abbreviation for Attenuation.


Feature that automatically detects whether a crossover cable would be necessary for transmission on a twisted-pair port and automatically reconfigures the port for use with the connected cable.  Avoids the need for specialized crossover cables.


The pathway, cable or conductors that connect telecommunications rooms, entrance facilities and equipment rooms within or between buildings. With today's networks, the backbone is becoming based more on fiber optic cable.


Bend Radius:
A measurement that indicates the degree of bending that an optical fiber can tolerate before it breaks or begins to lose signal.


BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) connector:
A type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable. The BNC connector is used for RF signal connections, both for analog and Serial Digital Interface video signals, amateur radio antenna connections, aviation electronics (avionics) and on nearly every piece of electronic test equipment manufactured in the last 35 or so years. This connector is an alternative to the RCA connector when used for composite video on commercial video devices, however many consumer electronics with RCA jacks can be used with BNC-only commercial video equipment via a simple adaptor. BNC connectors were commonly used on 10base2 thin Ethernet networks, both on cable interconnections and network cards, though these have largely been replaced by newer Ethernet devices whose wiring does not use coaxial cable. Some ARCNET networks use BNC terminated coax.


Butterfly Contact:
The center contact is machined to outer dimensions. Then a hole is drilled in the back, for center conductor entry and a slot is then cut on both sides of the contact, 180° apart. The contact is then heat treated so when the center conductor is pushed into the back of the contact, the contact opens on the slot hinges and grabs onto the center conductor due to the heat treating.


Cable Attenuation:
Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. Attenuation occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog. Sometimes called loss, attenuation is a natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances. The extent of attenuation is usually expressed in units called decibels (dBs).
If Ps is the signal power at the transmitting end (source) of a communications circuit and Pd is the signal power at the receiving end (destination), then Ps > Pd. The power attenuation Ap in decibels is given by the formula:

Ap = 10 log10(Ps/Pd)

Attenuation can also be expressed in terms of voltage. If Av is the voltage attenuation in decibels, Vs is the source signal voltage, and Vd is the destination signal voltage, then:
Av = 20 log10(Vs/Vd)

In conventional and fiber optic cables, attenuation is specified in terms of the number of decibels per foot, 1,000 feet, kilometer, or mile. The less the attenuation per unit distance, the more efficient the cable. When it is necessary to transmit signals over long distances via cable, one or more repeaters can be inserted along the length of the cable. The repeaters boost the signal strength to overcome attenuation. This greatly increases the maximum attainable range of communication.


Cable Jacket:
Protective sheath around a cable.


A type of unshielded twisted pair cable with the capability to data at a rate of 10Mbit/s, and bandwidth of up to 16MHz. Most new structured cabling installations use higher-performing Cat5, Cat5e or Cat6, but Cat3 is still used in many two-line telephone systems. Also known as Category 3.


CAT 5:
Otherwise known as Category 5, this type of twisted-pair network cable is capable of transmitting data at a rate of 100 Mbit/second. CAT 5 is commonly used in 100BASE-TX Ethernet networks, and is limited to 328-ft. (100 meter) cable runs.


CAT 5e:
The abbreviation for Category 5 enhanced, a type of twisted-pair network cable that has far-end crosstalk specifications and transmits data at a rate of 1 Gbit/second, but has the same run-length specifications (328 feet) as regular CAT5. A common cable choice for Gigabit Ethernet applications.


CAT 6:
With even higher standards for system noise and crosstalk than CAT 5e cable, Category 6 is ideal for Gigabit Ethernet, but offers the convenience of being backward compatible with CAT 3, CAT 5 and CAT 5e network cables. A twisted-pair cable with copper conducting wires, CAT 6 has a maximum run limit of 295 feet (90 meters), and performs at up to 250 MHz.


"Communication" cables that meet the same flame propagation requirements of general use raceways (FT-1).


"Communication Plenum" cable that meets the same flame propagation and smoke density requirements of plenum raceways (FT-6).


"Communication Riser" cables that meet the same flame propagation requirements of riser raceways (FT-4).


Central Member:
A strengthening element, which is run down the center of a cable to provide it with extra support.

Center Conductor:
The solid or stranded wire int he middle of the coaxial cable. The conductor diameter is measured by the American Wire Gauge (AWG).


Crossover Cable:
A network cable that maps the output signals of one electrical connector to the input signals of another, making it possible for two electronic devices to perform full-duplex communication. The term commonly refers to the Ethernet crossover cable, but other cable types can follow the same principle. Crossover cable also enables devices to communicate without a hub, switch or router.


Die-Type Blades:
The term die is most commonly used in tooling (i.e. press tools "punch and die") but there are many others types of die, e.g. thread cutting dies, forming dies, forging dies, die-casting dies, etc. The term when applied to steel often refers to drawing dies through which hot rolled wire and bar are drawn to produce the finish and dimensional accuracy that is required for bright steel.


The acronym for Digital Visual Interface. DVIs are Digital interface cabling assemblies that allow analog signals to be converted into digital through Transition Minimized Differential Signaling (TMDS).


Removing burs, sharp edges, or fins from metal parts by filing, grinding, or tumbling in a media that removes the burrs from the aluminum.


Dual durometer chemical resistant handle:
A dual durometer thermoplastic polyurethane or thermoplastic polyurethane-containing handle suitable for human grip provides both mechanical strength and chemical resistance and can be prepared without the use of adhesives.


Echo Return Loss:
In telephone systems, when voice signal power that is being sent to the listener reflects back to the talker, echo occurs. Echo return loss is the ratio of the sent-signal power level to the reflected echo's power level.


The abbreviation for Equal Level Far End Crosstalk.


FCC Part 68:
The Federal Communication Commission’s standard for the connection of terminal equipment to the public telephone network. In order to prevent voltage damage to the phone network, FCC Part 68 requires that any cables used in new installations – or modifications to existing systems – must be made of minimum 24-gauge solid copper conductors, in a twisted-pair format that complies with standards for Cat3 or higher, as defined by ANSI/TIA/EIA building wiring standards.


Acronym/abbreviation for Full Duplex. Typically associated with a LED status indicator which illuminates steadily when a port is in full-duplex mode, and is not illuminated when in half-duplex mode. Typically flashes to indicate a collision has been detected on a device connected to a switch or media converter port.


A nonconductive material that is used to enhance the shape, flexibility, or tensile strength of a cable.


Foiled Twisted Pair Cable:
Also known as Screened Twisted Pair Cable, this type of cabling has an overall wrapping of foil, which provides it with a degree of protection against electromagnetic interference.


The abbreviation for Flame Retardant Non-Corrosive.


F-Type Connectors:
Cable Assemblies, CATV, CIMs, Head End Equipment, High Speed Cable Modems, Hybrid Fiber Coax Networks, Set Top Boxes.

The Type F is threaded rather than snap-on. Primary applications are for cable television (CATV), set top boxes, and cable modems.

With the deployment of 750 MHz Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) networks, it became increasingly obvious that existing low performance F receptacles could not be used in high speed cable modems and customer interface units (CIUs). THe industry has challenged connector manufacturers to develop high performance connectors featuring -30 dB return loss at 1 Ghz. Additional, these high performance connectors must still accept .022-.042 in. diameter conductors. All connectors comply with a 3/8-32 thread specification.


Hand Drawn:
Wire is often reduced to the desired diameter and properties by repeated drawing through progressively smaller dies, or traditionally holes in draw plates. The wire may be heated to red heat in an inert atmosphere to soften it, and then cooled, in a process called annealing. An inert atmosphere is used to prevent oxidation, although some scaling always occurs and must be removed by 'pickling' before the wire is redrawn.
An important point in wire-drawing is that of lubrication to facilitate the operation and to lessen the wear on the dies. Various lubricants, such as oil, are employed. Another lubrication method is to immerse the wire in a copper (II) sulfate solution, such that a film of copper is deposited which forms a kind of lubricant; this eases the wire-drawing considerably. In some classes of wire the copper is left after the final drawing to serve as a preventive of rust or to allow easy soldering.
The wire-drawing machines include means for holding the dies accurately in position and for drawing the wire steadily through the holes. The usual design consists of a cast-iron bench or table having a bracket standing up to hold the die, and a vertical drum which rotates and by coiling the wire around its surface pulls it through the die, the coil of wire being stored upon another drum or "swift" which lies behind the die and reels off the wire as fast as required. The wire drum or "block" is provided with means for rapidly coupling or uncoupling it to its vertical shaft, so that the motion of the wire may be stopped or started instantly. The block is also tapered, so that the coil of wire may be easily slipped off upwards when finished. Before the wire can be attached to the block, a sufficient length of it must be pulled through the die; this is effected by a pair of gripping pincers on the end of a chain which is wound around a revolving drum, so drawing the pincers along, and with them the wire, until enough is through the die to be coiled two or three times on the block, where the end is secured by a small screw clamp or vice ready for the drawing operation. Wire has to be pointed or made smaller in diameter at the end before it can be passed through the die; the pointing is done by hammering, filing, rolling or swaging in dies, which effect a reduction in diameter. When the wire is on the block the latter is set in motion and the wire is drawn steadily through the die; it is very important that the block shall rotate evenly and that it shall run true and pull the wire in an even manner, otherwise the "snatching" which occurs will break the wire, or at least weaken it in spots.
Continuous wire-drawing machines differ from the single-block machines in having a series of dies through which the wire passes in a continuous manner. The difficulty of feeding between each die is solved by introducing a block between each, so that as the wire issues it coils around the block and is so helped on to the next die. The speeds of the blocks are increased successively, so that the elongation due to drawing is taken up and slip compensated for. The operation of threading the wire first through all the dies and around the blocks is termed "stringing-up." The arrangements for lubrication include a pump which floods the dies, and in many cases also the bottom portions of the blocks run in lubricant. The speeds at which the wire travels vary greatly, according to the material and the amount of reduction effected.


Acronym for High bandwidth Digital Content Protection, a form of digital copy protection that protects digital audio and digital video content as it travels across Display Port, Digital Video Interface (DVI), High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI), and Gigabit Video Interface (GVIF) connections.


The acronym for High Definition Multimedia Interface. This type of cable is the first all-digital, uncompressed audio/video interface, in addition to being the only one that is industry-supported. HDMI greatly simplifies audio/video installations, because a single cable is able to transfer high definition video at a rate of 165 megapixels per second, while at the same time supporting up to 8 channels of digital audio.


Hex crimped connectors:
A crimp connector for attachment to a coaxial cable by use of a conventional crimping tool includes a plurality of annular ridges to be crimped, which ridges define a modified hexagonal perimeter having three pairs of opposed planar surfaces and curved surfaces interconnecting adjacent ones of the planar surfaces.


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Abbreviation for the Insulated Cable Engineers Association


ICEA S-80-576:
An Insulated Cable Engineers Association standard for Cat1 and Cat2 unshielded twisted pair cables, for indoor use in communications wiring systems.


IDC Termination:
The Insulation Displacing Connector method of wire termination. This low-force technique eliminates the need to strip or crimp wires, and is widely used in applications involving multi-wire cables.


IEC 11801-B:
An International Engineering Consortium document which gives standards for generic cabling used on customer premises.


IEEE 802.3:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard for 10Base standard Ethernet transmitted via copper or fiber optic cables.


IEEE 802.3u:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standard for 100Base Fast Ethernet that is transmitted over fiber optic or twisted-pair copper media.


IEEE 802.3ab:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics standard for 1000BaseT Gigabit Ethernet transmitted over twisted-pair copper cable.


IEEE 802.3z:
IEEE standard for 1000BaseSX and 1000BaseLX Gigabit Ethernet transmitted via fiber optics

Internal Thread:
An easy-to-manipulate plug or connector for closing the open end of an internally threaded fitting, wherein the connector utilizes a pair of outwardly expansible gripper members for attachment to the internal threads of a fitting to be tested and the connector is easily positioned in the secured and sealing position by a simple movement and is easily and quickly removed thereafter.


The delay time for data arriving at a port and exiting another port in a switch or a switching media converter.


Acronym for Last In - First Out.


Link Power Budget:
1) In a singlemode fiber optic circuit, he link loss on a fiber strand, expressed in dB, worst case of amplitude loss measurements taken in both directions at 850 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm optical frequency spectra, or 2) In a fiber optic transceiver, the difference expressed in dB between the Minimum Output Power of the transmitter and the Minimum Sensitivity of the receiver.
Devices having a Link Power Budget capability equal to or in excess of the worst-case link loss measurement of a singlemode fiber optic circuit will operate on that circuit. (Gigabit Ethernet, with its narrow bit-time window, also requires that phase jitter be well-controlled.) This is a more accurate measurement than the manufacturer-expressed distances nominally provided in product descriptions of fiber optic singlemode media conversion and switching products, since the number of splices, patch panels, curves in the fiber strands and other circumstances provide varying amounts of signal loss. Devices having identical Link Power Budget specifications will be able to span identical distances on a singlemode fiber optic circuit, regardless of the distance nominally specified for a particular unit. Signamax media converters and fiber optic switch interfaces are normally specified extremely conservatively, so that the claimed distances can be achieved on singlemode fiber optic circuits with many splices, patch panels, or bends in the fiber optic strands.


Acronym/abbreviation for Link / Activity. Typically used to indicate a LED status indicator which illuminates steadily for link pulses are being received, and flashes to indicate data activity on a switch or media converter port.


Also known as kcmil, a thousand circular mils. A circular mil is the area of a wire where the diameter is one mil, with one mil equaling one-thousandth of an inch.


Multiple Quantum Well LASER; high-power LASER with stable emission characteristics, used in fiber optic singlemode.


MPD 1506:
A standard that gives requirements for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insulated electrical wires.


A multicore cable is a generic term for an electrical cable that has multiple cores. The term is normally only used in relation to a cable that has more cores than commonly encountered. For example, a three core mains cable is never referred to as multicore, but a cable comprising three coaxial cables in a single sheath would be considered a multicore.


NAS 1745:
A standard document, which gives requirements for solder-style, hot air shrinkable, insulated, moisture-resistant shield termination splice.


The abbreviation for Network Equipment-Building System, a set of guidelines commonly applied to telecommunications equipment within the United States.


Indicates whether or not your cable is working or not.


The plenum is a space located either above a suspended ceiling or below a raised floor. Heating and air-conditioning systems typically use plenum space for air circulation, and computer and telephone network wires are often routed through it.


Plenum Cable:
A type of cable that is made specifically to be housed in a building’s plenum. This type of cable runs a greater risk of being damaged by fire, so manufacturers typically coat it with a flame-retardant material, such as Teflon, to help cut back on the cable’s production of smoke and harmful gasses should it begin to burn.


Packets per second.


The abbreviation for Power Sum Equal Level Far End Crosstalk.


The abbreviation for Power Sum Near End Crosstalk, an algebraic sum that applies to four-pair cable. PSNEXT describes the total amount of Near End Crosstalk of 3 pairs, as it affects the one remaining pair.


Quad-shield Cable:
A type of quality coaxial cable that is wrapped in four layers of shielding, a feature which gives it extra protection from interference and damage.


In mechanical engineering, a ratchet is a device that allows linear or rotary motion in only one direction, while preventing motion in the opposite direction. Ratchets are used in many other mechanisms, including clocks, capstans, turnstiles, spanners, winders, cable ties, jacks, screwdrivers, and hoists.

Ratchet Cutter:
A manually-operated ratchet cutter having a moveable and a fixed handle part, the fixed handle part forming a first fixed cutting edge which is developed substantially in the shape of a circular segment and a moveable cutting edge being articulated on an upper end region of the fixed cutting edge for scissor-like cooperation with the fixed cutting edge, the moveable cutting edge moving in a plane parallel to the first cutting edge and cooperating with the latter, and having a ratchet mechanism which comprises a blocking lever and an advance lever and engages in a toothing developed on the outer periphery of the moveable cutting edge. Furthermore, the blocking lever can be moved into a release position.

An RCA jack, also referred to as a phono connector or CINCH/AV connector, is a type of electrical connector that is commonly used in the audio/video market. The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s to allow phonograph players to be connected to amplifiers. For many other applications it began to replace the older jack plugs used in the audio world when component high fidelity started becoming popular in the 1950s. The corresponding plug is called an RCA plug or a phono plug. The latter is often confused with a phone plug which refers to a TRS connector.
In the most normal usage, cables have a standard plug on each end, consisting of a central male connector, surrounded by a ring. The ring is often segmented for flexibility. Devices mount the jack, consisting of a central hole with a ring of metal around it. The ring is slightly smaller in diameter and longer than the ring on the plug, allowing the plug's ring to fit tightly over it. The jack has a small area between the outer and inner rings which is filled with an insulator, typically plastic (very early versions, or those made for use as RF connectors used ceramic).

RG6 Cable:
A coaxial cable that is recommended for cable TV applications with digital, rooftop-antenna and satellite dish transmissions.RG6 is a more recent issue than RG59, and is widely used in new home and building constructions. RG6 cable contains a copper-clad steel center, has a larger diameter than RG59 cable, and provides better shielding as well.

RG58 Cable:
Is a specific type of coaxial cable often used for Thin Ethernet (10BASE2) and low-power signal connections. The cable has a characteristic impedance of either 50 or 52 Ohm. When used for Ethernet, it provides a maximum segment length of 185 meters. Most two-way radio communication systems, such as marine SSB, marine VHF, amateur, police, fire, WLAN Antennas etc., are designed to work with 50 Ohm cable.
RG-58 cable is commonly used as a generic carrier of signals in physical laboratories, since it is commonly combined with BNC connectors that are common on equipment such as oscilloscopes. However, interconnecting equipment with multiple coax cables can lead to ground loops, which can pick-up 50-60 Hz fields from the AC mains.
RG-58 cable can be used for moderately high frequencies. Its signal attenuation depends on the frequency, e.g. from 0.11 dB/m at 50 MHz to 1.4 dB/m at 2 GHz.

RG59 Cable:
A standard, cost-effective coaxial cable which is widely used in cable TV connections. This type of cable suffers very little loss over distances, which make it a popular choice for high-definition applications.

RG62 Cable:
A form of coaxial cabling with an impedance of 93 ohms that is used in ARCNET networks..


Stands for Radio Guide, a U. S. Army specification for grades of transmission lines. RG spedifications refer to forms of coaxial cable used in networking.


RGBHV (Red Green Blue Horizontal Vertical):
A video standard similar to RGB except that the horizontal and vertical sync signals are each carried on a separate line.


Ribbon Cable:
A type of flat, wide cable whose wires are arranged side-by-side in a single layer, instead of the traditional round cables configuration. Ribbon cable is widely used in computers.


A term that commonly refers to any 8P8C modular connector.


The abbreviation for Return Loss, which is the ratio of reflected wave amplitude to incident wave amplitude, measured at the place where a transmission line and terminating impedance meet.


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Soft grip handle , single handed use , single lever action use , rugged construction , engineered design means less force required in use , interchangeable heads , universal fitting allows various manufacturers fittings to be used.


Screened Twisted Pair Cable:
This variety of twisted pair cabling, which is also known as Foiled Twisted Pair Cable, receives a degree of interference resistance from its overall cover of foil.


Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP):
A type of twisted pair cabling that incorporates a wrap of metal shielding, which provides protection against external electromagnetic interference. In this variety of cable, shielding is applied both to the cable as a whole, as well as to each individual pair of copper wires within.


Siamese Cable:
A type of coaxial cable that combines both power and video wires, which is often used in video, Cable TV and closed-circuit television (CCTV) applications.


Solid PVC Cable:
This is a type of cable which has a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) jacket. PVC cable is flame retardant and provides excellent protection against moisture; however, it is not smoke retardant. Because of this, PVC cable is used widely in situations which do not require smoke-retardant wiring, such as non-plenum applications.

Solid Wire Twisted Pair Cable:
A structurally rigid type of twisted pair cabling whose conducting wires are solid and have the capability to support long data runs (up to 100 meters). Solid twisted pair cable is frequently used for Ethernet applications, and is well-suited to the type of fixed-wire configurations found in environments such as office buildings.

A solid nylon tool used for poking or adjusting small wires or components. Often used in the electronics or telecommunications industries.


The abbreviation for Singing Return Loss, the type of return loss that occurs in the frequency bands found above and below the echo return loss band. This measurement is called singing return loss because it indicates how much a system sings, or oscillates.


Straight-Through Cable:
A terminated twisted-pair LAN cable that has RJ-45 connectors with an identical pin-out arrangement at both ends.

Stranded Wire Twisted Pair Cable:
A variety of twisted-pair cabling whose conducting wires are stranded. Because the stranded wires allow this type of cable to be very flexible, it is ideal for applications that require cables to be routed around corners, and also for use as patch cable.


Sync Signals (Horizontal and Vertical):
Synchronisation is transmitted via negative-going pulses; in a composite video signal these are approximately 0.3V below the 'black' level. The horizontal sync signal is a single short pulse which indicates the start of every line. Two timing intervals are defined - the front porch between the end of displayed video and the start of the sync pulse, and the back porch after the sync pulse and before displayed video. These and the sync pulse itself are called the horizontal blanking (or retrace) interval and represent the time that the electron beam in the CRT is returning to the start of the next display line. The vertical sync signal is a series of much longer pulses, indicating the start of a new field. The sync pulses occupy the whole of line interval of a number of lines at the beginning and end of a scan; no picture information is transmitted during vertical retrace. The pulse sequence is designed to allow horizontal sync to continue during vertical retrace; it also indicates whether each field represents even or odd lines in interlaced systems (depending on whether it begins at the start of a horizontal line, or mid-way through).


T568A and T568B termination
Perhaps the widest known and most discussed feature of TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 is the definition of pin/pair assignments for eight-conductor 100-ohm balanced twisted-pair cabling, such as Category 3, Category 5 and Category 6 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables. These assignments are named T568A and T568B and they define the pinout, or order of connections, for wires in RJ-45 eight-pin modular connector plugs and jacks. Although these definitions consume only one of the 468 pages in the standards documents, a disproportionate amount of attention is paid to them. This is because cables that are terminated with differing standards on each end will not function normally.
TIA/EIA-568-B specifies that horizontal cables should be terminated using the T568A pin/pair assignments, "or, optionally, per [T568B] if necessary to accommodate certain 8-pin cabling systems." Despite this instruction, many organizations continue to implement T568B for various reasons, chiefly associated with tradition (T568B is equivalent to AT&T 258A). The United States National Communication Systems Federal Telecommunications Recommendations do not recognize T568B.
The primary color of pair one is blue, pair two is orange, pair three is green and pair four is brown. Each pair consists of one conductor of solid color, and a second conductor of the same color with a white stripe. The specific assignments of pairs to connector pins varies between the T568A and T568B standards.
Mixing T568A-terminated patch cords with T568B-terminated horizontal cables (or the reverse) does not produce pinout problems in a facility. Although it may very slightly degrade signal quality, this effect is marginal and certainly no greater than that produced by mixing cable brands in-channel.

A shape that gradually becomes narrower or thinner toward one end.


TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer):
Transmits a fast rise time pulse along the conductor. If the conductor is of a uniform impedance and properly terminated, the entire transmitted pulse will be absorbed in the far-end termination and no signal will be reflected back to the TDR. But where impedance discontinuities exist, each discontinuity will create an echo that is reflected back to the reflectometer (hence the name). Increases in the impedance create an echo that reinforces the original pulse while decreases in the impedance create an echo that opposes the original pulse. The resulting reflected pulse that is measured at the output/input to the TDR is displayed or plotted as a function of time and, because the speed of signal propagation is relatively constant for a given transmission medium, can be read as a function of cable length. This is similar in principle to radar. Because of this sensitivity to impedance variations, a TDR may be used to verify cable impedance characteristics, splice and connector locations and associated losses, and estimate cable lengths, as every non homogenity in the impedance of the cable will reflect some signal back in the form of echoes.


Teflon (PTFE) Coated High Temperature Stranded Wire (600 Volt):
Wire for high temperature use having good flexibility. For use where abrasion resistance is required. Recommended for critical applications such as: aviation, military, commercial, racing. Reinforced with abrasion resistant mineral fillers.

(also known as cheapernet, thin ethernet, thinnet or thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet that uses thin coaxial cable (RG-58 or similar, as opposed to the thicker RG-8 cable used in 10BASE5 networks), terminated with BNC connectors. For many years this was the dominant 10 Mbit/s Ethernet standard, but due to the immense demand for high speed networking, the low cost of Category 5 Ethernet cable, and the popularity of 802.11 wireless networks, both 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 have become almost obsolete.

The TNC (threaded Neill-Concelman) connector is a threaded version of the BNC connector. The connector has a 50 Ώ impedance and operates best in the 0-11 GHz frequency spectrum. It has better performance than the BNC connector at microwave frequencies. Invented in the late 1950s and named after Paul Neill of Bell Labs and Carl Concelman of Amphenol, the TNC connector has been employed in a wide range of radio and wired applications.

TNC (male) Adapter/Converter:
For converting antenna products.


Twinax Connector:
These connectors are used when installing Twinax cable.


Twisted Pair Cable:
Invented by Alexander Graham Bell, twisted pair cable is exactly what it sounds like: cable made up of pairs of copper wires which are twisted around each other, in order to cancel out electromagnetic interference. The amount of interference resistance given by a particular twisted pair cable depends upon how many twists its wire has per meter: the higher the number of twists, the greater the amount of interference protection offered.


UL 444:
An Underwriters Laboratories document which defines the safety standards for communications cables.


UL 1424:
An Underwriters Laboratories document which defines the safety standards for Power-Limited Fire Alarm Circuit cables.


UL 1581:
An Underwriters Laboratories document which defines the safety standards for Electrical Wires, Cables and Flexible Cords.


UL 2024:
An Underwriters Laboratories standard – in accordance with the NEC – that gives requirements for general-use, plenum, and riser-rated raceways intended for use with fiber optic and communications cabling.


Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable:
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables are twisted pair cables whose wire pairs are not individually shielded. UTP cables are much more flexible than the shielded variety, and are often used in telephone and Ethernet applications.


UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair):
A Category 5 cable; one of the most popular LAN cables. This cable consists of 4 twisted pairs of metal wires, for a total of 8 wires. Adding RJ45 connectors to both ends of the UTP cable makes it a LAN cable normally used.

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